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Nobel Prize portrait, 1904
|Data 2:|| September 14 1849|
|Data 3 (data hidden if data3 empty or not defined):|| February 27 1936 (aged 86)|
Leningrad, Soviet Union
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Russian: Иван Петрович Павлов, September 14, 1849 – February 27, 1936) was a Russian physiologist, psychologist, and physician. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1904 for research pertaining to the digestive system. Pavlov is widely known for first describing the phenomenon of classical conditioning.
Life and research
Ivan Pavlov was born in Ryazan, Russia. He began his higher education as a student at the Ryazan Ecclesiastical Seminary, but then dropped out and enrolled in the University of Saint Petersburg to study the natural sciences. He received his doctorate in 1879.
In the 1890s, Pavlov was investigating the gastric function of dogs by externalizing a salivary gland so he could collect, measure and analyze the saliva and what response it had to food under different conditions. He noticed that the dogs tended to salivate before food coated with chili powder was actually delivered to their mouths, and set out to investigate this "psychic secretion", as he called it. He decided that this was more interesting than the chemistry of saliva, and changed the focus of his research, carrying out a long series of experiments in which he manipulated the stimuli occurring before the presentation of food. He thereby established the basic laws for the establishment and extinction of what he called "conditional reflexes" — i.e., reflex responses, like salivation, that only occurred conditionally upon specific previous experiences of the animal. These experiments were carried out in the 1890s and 1900s, and were known to western scientists through translations of individual accounts, but first became fully available in English in a book published in 1927.
Unlike many pre-revolutionary scientists, Pavlov was highly regarded by the Soviet government, and he was able to continue his researches until he reached a considerable age. Moreover, he was praised by Lenin and as a Nobel laureate.
After the murder of Sergei Kirov in 1934, Pavlov wrote several letters to Molotov criticizing the mass persecutions which followed and asking for the reconsideration of cases pertaining to several people he knew personally.
In later life he was particularly interested in trying to use conditioning to establish an experimental model of the induction of neuroses. He died in Leningrad. His laboratory in Saint Petersburg has been carefully preserved as a museum.
Conscious until his very last moment, Pavlov asked one of his students to sit beside his bed and to record the circumstances of his dying. He wanted to create unique evidence of subjective experiences of this terminal phase of life. The great scientific courage of Pavlov is exhibited by this story: he tried to learn, and to increase knowledge of physiology, even on his deathbed.
Reflex system research
Pavlov performed and directed experiments on digestion which earned him the 1904 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine Experiments included surgically extracting portions of the digestive system from animals, severing nerve bundles to determine the effects, and implanting fistulas between digestive organs and an external pouch to examine the organ's contents. This research served as a base for broad research on the digestive system.
Further work on reflex actions involved involuntary reactions to stress and pain. Pavlov extended the definitions of the four temperament types under study at the time: phlegmatic, choleric, sanguine, and melancholic. Pavlov and his researchers observed and began the study of transmarginal inhibition (TMI), the body's natural response of shutting down when exposed to overwhelming stress or pain. This research showed how all temperament types responded to the stimuli the same way, but different temperaments move through the responses at different times. He commented "that the most basic inherited difference. .. was how soon they reached this shutdown point and that the quick-to-shut-down have a fundamentally different type of nervous system."
Carl Jung continued Pavlov's work on TMI and correlated the observed shutdown types in animals with his own introverted and extroverted temperament types in humans. Introverted persons, he believed, were more sensitive to stimuli and reached a TMI state earlier than their extroverted counterparts. This continuing research branch is gaining the name highly sensitive persons.
William Sargant and others continued the behavioral research in mental conditioning to achieve memory implantation and brainwashing (any effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and beliefs in a person).
Pavlov's term "conditional reflex" ("условный рефлекс") was mistranslated from the Russian as "conditioned reflex", and other scientists reading his work concluded that since such reflexes were conditioned, they must be produced by a process called conditioning. As Pavlov's work became known in the West, particularly through the writings of John B. Watson, the idea of "conditioning" as an automatic form of learning became a key concept in the developing specialism of comparative psychology, and the general approach to psychology that underlay it, behaviorism. The British philosopher Bertrand Russell was an enthusiastic advocate of the importance of Pavlov's work for philosophy of mind.
Pavlov's research on conditional reflexes greatly influenced not only science, but also popular culture. The phrase "Pavlov's dog" is often used to describe someone who merely reacts to a situation rather than use critical thinking. Pavlovian conditioning was a major theme in Aldous Huxley's dystopian novel, Brave New World, and also to a large degree in Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow.
It is popularly believed that Pavlov always signaled the occurrence of food by ringing a bell. However, his writings record the use of a wide variety of stimuli, including whistles, metronomes, tuning forks, and a range of visual stimuli, in addition to ringing a bell. Catania cast doubt on whether Pavlov ever actually used a bell in his famous experiments. Littman tentatively attributed the popular imagery to Pavlov’s contemporaries Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev and John B. Watson, until Thomas found several references that unambiguously stated Pavlov did, indeed, use a bell.
- ↑ Ivan Pavlov. Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
- ↑ Ivan Petrovich Pavlov :: Opposition to Communism - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
- ↑ Chance, Paul. Learning and Behaviour. Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1988. ISBN 0534085083. Page 48.
- ↑ 1904 Nobel prize laureates
- ↑ Rokhin, L, Pavlov, I & Popov, Y. (1963) Psychopathology and Psychiatry, Foreign Languages Publication House: Moscow.
- ↑ Catania, A. Charles (1994); Query: Did Pavlov's Research Ring a Bell?, PSYCOLOQUY Newsletter, Tuesday, June 7, 1994
- ↑ Littman, Richard A. (1994); Bekhterev and Watson Rang Pavlov's Bell, Psycoloquy, Vol. 5, No. 49
- ↑ Thomas, Roger K. (1994); Pavlov's Rats "dripped Saliva at the Sound of a Bell", Psycoloquy, Vol. 5, No. 80 http://www.cogsci.ecs.soton.ac.uk/cgi/psyc/newpsy?5.80 (accessed 2006-aug-22)
- Boakes, Robert (1984). From Darwin to behaviourism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23512-9.
- Firkin, Barry G.; J.A. Whitworth (1987). Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. Parthenon Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85070-333-4.
- Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex. Translated and Edited by G. V. Anrep. London: Oxford University Press. Available online
- Todes, D. P. (1997). "Pavlov's Physiological Factory," Isis. Vol. 88. The History of Science Society, p. 205-246.
- PBS article
- Nobel Prize website biography of I. P. Pavlov
- Institute of Experimental Medicine article on Pavlov
- A comic strip about Pavlov's work, by Wulffmorghenthaler.
- Link to full text of Pavlov's lectures
- Link to a list of Pavlov's rats with some pictures
Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine
Emil Behring (1901) · Ronald Ross (1902) · Niels Finsen (1903) · Ivan Pavlov (1904) · Robert Koch (1905) · Camillo Golgi / Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1906) · Alphonse Laveran (1907) · Ilya Mechnikov / Paul Ehrlich (1908) · Emil Kocher (1909) · Albrecht Kossel (1910) · Allvar Gullstrand (1911) · Alexis Carrel (1912) · Charles Robert Richet (1913) · Robert Bárány (1914) · Jules Bordet (1919) · August Krogh (1920) · Archibald Hill / Otto Meyerhof (1922) · Frederick Banting / John Macleod (1923) · Willem Einthoven (1924)
|Complete roster · 1901–1925 · 1926–1950 · 1951–1975 · 1976–2000 · 2001–present|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Physiologist, psychologist, physician|
|DATE OF BIRTH||September 14 1849|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Ryazan, Russia|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 27 1936|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Leningrad, Soviet Union|
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