Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. 
The inferior thyroid veins two, frequently three or four, in number, arise in the venous plexus on the thyroid gland, communicating with the middle and superior thyroid veins.
They form a plexus in front of the trachea, behind the Sternothyreoidei.
From this plexus, a left vein descends and joins the left innominate trunk, and a right vein passes obliquely downward and to the right across the innominate artery to open into the right innominate vein, just at its junction with the superior vena cava; sometimes the right and left veins open by a common trunk in the latter situation.
These veins receive esophageal tracheal, and inferior laryngeal veins, and are provided with valves at their terminations in the innominate veins.
The arch of the aorta, and its branches.
The fascia and middle thyroid veins.
The thymus of a full-time fetus, exposed in situ.
This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant.
|Veins of the torso|
|Coronary||coronary sinus (great cardiac, left marginal, small cardiac, middle cardiac, posterior of the left ventricle, oblique of the left atrium) • anterior cardiac (right marginal) • pulmonary|
|brachiocephalic: inferior thyroid - thymic - internal thoracic (anterior intercostal, superior epigastric) - left superior intercostal - supreme - vertebral - internal jugular - subclavian (axillary: lateral thoracic, thoracoepigastric) - pericardiacophrenic|
azygos: right superior intercostal - bronchial - intercostal/posterior intercostal 5-11 - accessory hemiazygos/hemiazygos - superior phrenic
|Vertebral column||vertebral venous plexuses (external, internal) • spinal (posterior, anterior) • basivertebral • intervertebral|
|to IVC on right and left: renal - hepatic - lumbar
to IVC on right, renal vein on left: inferior phrenic - suprarenal - ovarian/testicular (pampiniform plexus)
to azygos system: ascending lumbar (subcostal)
|Pelvis/common iliac||external iliac: inferior epigastric - deep circumflex iliac vein|
internal iliac: inferior gluteal - superior gluteal - median sacral vein - lateral sacral - obturator - internal pudendal (inferior rectal) - vesical venous plexus - prostatic venous plexus - deep of penis - vaginal venous plexus - uterine venous plexus - middle rectal - hemorrhoidal
|splenic: short gastric - left gastroepiploic - pancreatic - inferior mesenteric (superior rectal, left colic)
superior mesenteric: right gastroepiploic - pancreaticoduodenal - middle colic - right colic - ileocolic (appendicular)
direct (cystic, left gastric, right gastric, paraumbilical)
|fetal||ductus venosus • umbilical|