Infectious disease classification

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [2]; Associate Editor-In-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [3]

Overview

Among the almost infinite varieties of microorganisms, relatively few cause disease in otherwise healthy individuals.[1] Infectious disease results from the interplay between those few pathogens and the defenses of the hosts they infect. The appearance and severity of disease resulting from any pathogen depends upon the ability of that pathogen to damage the host as well as the ability of the host to resist the pathogen. Infectious microorganisms, or microbes, are therefore classified as either primary pathogens or as opportunistic pathogens according to the status of host defenses.

Classification

Infectious disease are caused by pathogenic microorganisms. These disease can be categorized into 4 main categories:

  • Bacterial infections
  • Viral infecions
  • Fungal infections
  • Parasitic infections

Bacterial infections

Bacterial infections can be classified based on their cellular features and specificities including:

  • Cellular wall thickness: Gram staining mathod
    • Gram positive bacteria
    • Gram negative bacteria
  • Microscopic shape
    • Bacillus shaped bacteria
    • Branchig shaped bacteria
    • Coccus shaped bacteria
    • Coma shaped bacteria
  • Use an O2-dependent system to generate ATP
    • Aerobics
    • Anaerobics
  • Oxidative damage susceptibility=Catalase enzyme
    • Catalase positive bacteria
    • Catalase negative bacteria
  • Oxidase containing method
    • Oxidase positive bacteria
    • Oxidase negative bacteria
  • Lactose fermenting method
    • Lactose fermenting bacteria
    • Non-lactose fermenting bacteria
  • Coagulase containing method
    • Coagulase positive bacteria
    • Coagulase negative bacteria

Viral classification:

  • Genetic material
    • DNA virus
    • RNA virus
  • Number of genetic copies in the virus
    • Single stranded genome
    • Double stranded genome

RNA viruses themselves can be categorized based on their ability to use host cell polymerizes or need to bring their own polymerizes with themselves into 2 categories:

  • Positive stranded viruses
  • Negative stranded viruses

Bacterial classification


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bacteria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gram staining
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gram positive
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aerobic
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anerobic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bacillus shaped bacteria
 
Branching shaped bacteria
 
Bacillus shaped bacteria
 
Coccus shaped bacteria
 
Branching shaped bacteria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Listeria
Bacillus
Corynebacterium
 
Nocardia
 
Clostridium
Propionibacterium
 
Staphylococcus
Streptococcus
 
Actinomyces
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gram negative
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Coccus shaped bacteria
 
 
Bacillus shaped bacteria
 
 
Comma shaped bacteria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Campylobacter jejuni
Vibrio cholerae
Helicobacter pylori
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diplococcus shaped gram negative bacteria
 
Coccobacillus shaped gram negative bacteria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Neisseria gonorrhoaea
Neisseia meningtidis
Moraxella
 
Haemophilus influenzae
Pasteurella
Brucella
Bordetella pertussis
Francisella tularensis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lactose fermentation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Positive
 
 
 
Negative
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Klebsiella
Escherichia coli
Enterobacter
Citrobacter
Serratia
 
 
 
Pseudomonas
Shigella
Salmonella
Yersinia
Proteus
 
 
 

Viral classification

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Virus classification
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Viral genome type
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DNA viruses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
RNA viruses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ssDNA
 
 
dsDNA
 
 
 
 
ssRNA
 
 
dsRNA
 
 
 
Parvovirus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reoviridae
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Linear genome
 
Circular genome
 
 
Positive strand
 
Negative strand
 
 
 
 
 
 
Herpes virus
Adenovirus
Poxvirus
Parvovirus
 
Papillomavirus
Polyomavirus
Hepadnavirus
 
 
Picornaviruses
Hepevirus
Caliciviruses
Flaviviruses
Togaviruses
Retroviruses
Coronaviruses
Arenaviruses
 
Arenavirus
Bunyavirus
Paramyxovirus
Orthomyxoviruses
Filoviruses
Rhabdoviruses
 


Fungal classification

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mycology classification
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Main infectious sites and methods
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Systemic mycoses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cutaneous mycoses
 
 
 
 
 
Histoplasma
Blastomyces
Coccidioidomyces
Paracoccidioidomyces
 
 
 
 
Opportunistic fungal infections
 
 
 
 
Candida albicans
Aspergillus fumigatus
Cryptococcus neoformans
Mucor spp.
Rhizopus spp.
Pneumocystis jirovecii
Sporothrix schenckii
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tinea dermatophytes
 
 
 
Tinea pityriasis versicolor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tinea capitis
Tinea corporis
Tinea cruris
Tinea pedis
Tinea unguium
 
 
 
Malassezia spp.
(a Pityrosporum spp.)
 
 
 


Parasitic classification

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Parasites classification
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Main categories
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ectoparasites
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Protozoa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Worms
Sarcoptes scabiei
Pediculus humanus
Phthirus pubis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
gastrointestinal infections
 
CNS infections
 
hematologic infections
 
Visceral infections
and
Sexual transmitted diseases
 
Nematodes (roundworms)
 
Cestodes (tapeworms)
 
Trematodes (flukes)
 
 
 
 
 
Giardia lamblia
Entamoeba histolytica
Cryptosporidium
 
Toxoplasma gondii
Naegleria fowleri
Trypanosoma brucei
 
Plasmodium vivax
Plasmodium ovale
Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium malariae
Babesia
 
Trypanosoma cruzi
Leishmania donovani
Trichomonas vaginalis
 
Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm)
Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworm)
Ancylostoma duodenale
Necator americanus (hookworms)
Trichinella spiralis
Trichuris trichiura (whipworm)
Toxocara canis
Onchocerca volvulus
Loa loa
Wuchereria bancrofti
 
Taenia solium
Diphyllobothrium latum
Echinococcus granulosus
 
Schistosoma
Clonorchis sinensis


References

  1. This section incorporatespublic domain materials included in the text: Medical Microbiology Fourth Edition: Chapter 8 (1996) . Baron, Samuel MD. The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.



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