Hyperlipoproteinemia natural history, complications and prognosis

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Lipoprotein Disorders Microchapters

Patient Information

Overview

Causes

Classification

Hyperlipoproteinemia
Hypolipoproteinemia

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Hardik Patel, M.D.

Overview

Hyperlipidemia may be inherited or secondary to some underlying disorder. Without treatment, it progresses to cause cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, early detection and aggressive management to lower the blood lipid levels helps prevent complications. In addition, some forms may predispose to acute pancreatitis.

Natural History

Hyperlipidemia may be inherited or secondary to some underlying disorder. High levels of LDL-cholesterol in hyperlipidemia increase cholesterol uptake in non-hepatic cells where monocytes and macrophages engulf cholesterol particles, leading to formation of foam cells and atherosclerotic plaque in the endothelium of arteries, leading to development of symptoms of coronary artery disease or cerebrovascular disease. Cholesterol also accumulates in other areas, such as the skin, causing xanthelasmas and the tendons, causing variety of xanthomas. Early corneal arcus is also common. Without treatment, the patient will also develop valvular abnormalities, most frequently aortic stenosis, due to the deposition of cholesterol.

Complications

Complications that can develop as a result of hyperlipidemia are:

Prognosis

Hyperlipidemia is often preventable and treatable. Early detection and aggressive management to lower the blood lipid levels helps prevent or slows the progression of coronary atherosclerosis and other complications. If uncontrolled, higher mortality occurs from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

References


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