|Systematic name|| Hafnium(IV) chloride|
|Molar mass||320.30 g/mol|
|Appearance||white crystalline solid|
|Solubility in water||decomposes|
|Melting point||432 °C (705 K)|
|Vapor pressure||1 mmHg at 190°C|
|Crystal structure||presumed monoclinic|
|Main hazards||irritant and corrosive|
| Structure and
|n, εr, etc.|
|Themodynamics|| Phase behaviour|
Solid, liquid, gas
|Spectral data||UV, IR, NMR, MS|
|Other anions|| Hafnium(IV) fluoride|
|Other cations|| Titanium(IV) chloride|
| Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Hafnium(IV) chloride is HfCl4. This Group 4 halide contains hafnium in the +4 oxidation state. HfCl4 is precursor to many hafnium organometallic compounds. It functions as a Lewis acid and catalyst for certain alkylation and isomerism reactions.
HfCl4 is produced by several procedures: (1) the reaction of carbon tetrachloride and hafnium oxide at above 450 °C; (2) chlorination of a mixture of HfO2 and carbon above 600 °C; and (3) chlorination of hafnium carbide above 250 °C.
Composition and structure
HfCl4 is non-molecular polymer wherein the Hf centers are bridged by chloride ligands as found for ZrCl4. In the gas phase, both ZrCl4 and HfCl4 are expected to adopt the monomeric tetrahedral structure seen for TiCl4.
Hafnium and zirconium compounds are extracted from ores together and have very similar properties. The most common contaminant in HfCl4 is therefore ZrCl4, and commercial samples can contain several percent zirconium.
The THF complex is monomeric and thus soluble in organic solvents, which allows this hafnium complex to react more easily.
- HfCl4 + 2 OC4H8 → HfCl4(OC4H8)2
Little is known about Hf(III) compounds because HfCl4 is especially difficult to reduce, but reduction can be effected with potassium-sodium alloy:
- 2 HfCl4 + 2 Na/K + 4 P(C2H5)3 → Hf2Cl6[P(C2H5)3]4 + 2 (Na/K)Cl
Deep green Hf2Cl6[P(C2H5)3]4 crystals form, which are diamagnetic. X-ray crystallography showed the structure of Hf2Cl6[P(C2H5)3]4 to be edge-shared bioctahedral, very similar to the Zr analogue. This hafnium dimer is used to research different bonding angles, structures, and symmetries in similar transition metal compounds.
Whereas AlCl3 is well known as an active Lewis-acid catalyst, HfCl4 is superior at least for the alkylation of ferrocene with allyldimethylchlorosilane. The greater size of Hf may diminish HfCl4's tendency to complex to ferrocene.
By using HfCl4 as a catalyst, the aldehyde product (product A) was formed in a much higher yield than product B.
- ^ Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Kirk-Othermer. Vol.11, 4th Ed. (1991)
- ^ Hala, J. Halides, Oxyhalides and Salts of Halogen Complexes of Titanium, Zirconium, Hafnium, Vanadium, Niobium and Tantalum. Vol. 40, 176-177, (1970).
- ^ S.V. Elinson, K.I. Petrov. Analytical Chemistry of the Elements: Zirconium and Hafnium. 11, (1969).
- ^ Greenwood, N. N., Earnshaw, A. Chemistry of the Elements Second Ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, (1997).
- ^ L.E. Manzer. "Tetrehydrofuran Complexes of Selected Early Transition Metals," Inorganic Synthesis. 21, 135-140, (1982).
- ^ M. E. Riehl, S. R. Wilson, and G. S. Girolami. "Synthesis, X-ray Crystal Structure, and Phosphine-Exchange Reactions of the Hafnium(III)-Hafnium(II1) Dimer Hf2Cl6[P(C2H5)3]4," Inorg. Chem. 32, 218-222, (1993).
- ^ S. Ahn, Y. Song, B. Yoo, I. Jung. "Lewis Acid-Catalyzed Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Ferrocene with Allylchlorosilanes," Organometallics. 19, 2777-2780, (2000).
- ^ P. Dunn, A. Graham, R. Grigg, P. Higginson. "Tandem...cycloaddition regiochemistry by Hafnium(IV) Chloride," Chem. Commun. 2035-2036, (2000).
- ^ S. Kobayashi, T. Busujima, S. Nagayama. "A Novel Classification of Lewis Acids on the Basis of Activity and Selectivity," Chem. Eur. J. 6, 19, 3492, (2000).
see also: Duraj, S. A.; Towns, R. L. R.; Baker, R. J. and Schupp, J., "Structure of cis-Tetrachlorobis(tetrahydrofuran)hafnium(IV)", Acta Crystallographica, 1990, C46, 890-2.
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