Environment and intelligence
Environment and intelligence are two closely related aspects of human well-being. The impact of environment on intelligence is one of the most important factors in understanding human group differences in IQ test scores and other measures of cognitive ability.
Early musical training in children are said to improve IQ.   However, a study claimed that musical training improves verbal, but not spatial IQ.  Significant differences in brain structure between musicians and non-musicians have been found. 
Studies have shown that Chess requires auditory-verbal-sequential skills, not visuospatial skills.  A German study found that Garry Kasparov has an IQ of 135 and an extremely good memory.  One study found that students who were taking a chess class improved mathematical and comprehension performance. 
Health and intelligence
- Colman, Carol, Raise a Smarter Child by Kindergarten: Raise IQ points by up to 30 points and turn on your child's smart genes Points, Broadway (publisher), ISBN 978-0767923019
- Eliot, Lise, What's Going on in There? : How the Brain and Mind Develop in the First Five Years of Life, Bantam (publisher), ISBN 978-0553378252
- ↑ Bruer, John T.. "Avoiding the pediatrician's error: how neuroscientists can help educators (and themselves)".
- ↑ Schellenberg, Glenn E.. "Music Lessons Enhance IQ". doi:10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00711.x.
- ↑ Vaughn, Kathryn. "Music and Mathematics: Modest Support for the Oft-Claimed Relationship". Journal of Aesthetic Education 34: 149-166. doi:10.2307/3333641.
- ↑ Ho YC, Cheung MC, Chan AS (2003). "Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children". Neuropsychology 17 (3): 439-50. PMID 12959510.
- ↑ Gaser C, Schlaug G (2003). "Brain structures differ between musicians and non-musicians". J. Neurosci. 23 (27): 9240-5. PMID 14534258.
- ↑ Schellenberg EG (2001). "Music and nonmusical abilities". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 930: 355-71. PMID 11458841.
- ↑ Rauscher FH, Shaw GL, Levine LJ, Wright EL, Dennis WR, Newcomb RL (1997). "Music training causes long-term enhancement of preschool children's spatial-temporal reasoning". Neurol. Res. 19 (1): 2-8. PMID 9090630.
- ↑ Rauscher FH, Shaw GL, Ky KN (1995). "Listening to Mozart enhances spatial-temporal reasoning: towards a neurophysiological basis". Neurosci. Lett. 185 (1): 44-7. PMID 7731551.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 I.Q. and Chess by Bill Wall, <http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Lab/7378/iq.htm>
Human group differences
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