The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionarily conserved domains that are present in most members of the family. These domains include a DNA binding domain, a dimerization domain which determines interaction with the differentiation regulated transcription factor proteins (DP), a transactivation domain enriched in acidic amino acids, and a tumor suppressor protein association domain which is embedded within the transactivation domain. This protein is differentially phosphorylated and is expressed in a wide variety of human tissues. It has higher identity to E2F4 than to other family members. Both this protein and E2F4 interact with tumor suppressor proteins p130 and p107, but not with pRB. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants encoding different isoforms.
Ginsberg D, Vairo G, Chittenden T, Xiao ZX, Xu G, Wydner KL, DeCaprio JA, Lawrence JB, Livingston DM (Nov 1994). "E2F-4, a new member of the E2F transcription factor family, interacts with p107". Genes & Development. 8 (22): 2665–79. doi:10.1101/gad.8.22.2665. PMID7958924.
Beijersbergen RL, Kerkhoven RM, Zhu L, Carlée L, Voorhoeve PM, Bernards R (Nov 1994). "E2F-4, a new member of the E2F gene family, has oncogenic activity and associates with p107 in vivo". Genes & Development. 8 (22): 2680–90. doi:10.1101/gad.8.22.2680. PMID7958925.
Itoh A, Levinson SF, Morita T, Kourembanas S, Brody JS, Mitsialis SA (1996). "Structural characterization and specificity of expression of E2F-5: a new member of the E2F family of transcription factors". Cellular & Molecular Biology Research. 41 (3): 147–54. PMID8589754.
Vaishnav YN, Vaishnav MY, Pant V (Jan 1998). "The molecular and functional characterization of E2F-5 transcription factor". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 242 (3): 586–92. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.8010. PMID9464260.
Morris L, Allen KE, La Thangue NB (Apr 2000). "Regulation of E2F transcription by cyclin E-Cdk2 kinase mediated through p300/CBP co-activators". Nature Cell Biology. 2 (4): 232–9. doi:10.1038/35008660. PMID10783242.
Gaubatz S, Lindeman GJ, Ishida S, Jakoi L, Nevins JR, Livingston DM, Rempel RE (Sep 2000). "E2F4 and E2F5 play an essential role in pocket protein-mediated G1 control". Molecular Cell. 6 (3): 729–35. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)00071-X. PMID11030352.
D'Souza SJ, Pajak A, Balazsi K, Dagnino L (Jun 2001). "Ca2+ and BMP-6 signaling regulate E2F during epidermal keratinocyte differentiation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (26): 23531–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M100780200. PMID11319226.
Macaluso M, Cinti C, Russo G, Russo A, Giordano A (Jun 2003). "pRb2/p130-E2F4/5-HDAC1-SUV39H1-p300 and pRb2/p130-E2F4/5-HDAC1-SUV39H1-DNMT1 multimolecular complexes mediate the transcription of estrogen receptor-alpha in breast cancer". Oncogene. 22 (23): 3511–7. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206578. PMID12789259.
Brandenberger R, Wei H, Zhang S, Lei S, Murage J, Fisk GJ, Li Y, Xu C, Fang R, Guegler K, Rao MS, Mandalam R, Lebkowski J, Stanton LW (Jun 2004). "Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation". Nature Biotechnology. 22 (6): 707–16. doi:10.1038/nbt971. PMID15146197.
Jiang Y, Saavedra HI, Holloway MP, Leone G, Altura RA (Sep 2004). "Aberrant regulation of survivin by the RB/E2F family of proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (39): 40511–20. doi:10.1074/jbc.M404496200. PMID15271987.
Joshi B, Ordonez-Ercan D, Dasgupta P, Chellappan S (Mar 2005). "Induction of human metallothionein 1G promoter by VEGF and heavy metals: differential involvement of E2F and metal transcription factors". Oncogene. 24 (13): 2204–17. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208206. PMID15735762.
Swetloff A, Ferretti P (2006). "Changes in E2F5 intracellular localization in mouse and human choroid plexus epithelium with development". The International Journal of Developmental Biology. 49 (7): 859–65. doi:10.1387/ijdb.051996as. PMID16172982.