Congestive heart failure epidemiology and demographics
Congestive heart failure Microchapters
Epidemiology and Demographics
ACC/AHA Guideline Recommendations:
Congestive heart failure epidemiology and demographics On the Web
Heart failure affects close to 5 million people in the United States of America and each year close to 500,000 new cases are diagnosed. Congestive heart failure is responsible for a significant portion of the healthcare budget, and more than 50% of patients seek re-admission within 6 months after treatment and the average duration of hospital stay is 6 days.
Epidemiology and Demographics
In 2005 the prevalence among adults aged 20 and older in the United States was 5,300,000 (about 2,650,000 males, and 2,650,000 females).
- Heart failure (HF) incidence approaches 10 per 1,000 population after age 65.
- 75% of heart failure cases have antecedent hypertension. About 22% of male and 46% of female myocardial infarction (MI) victims will be disabled with heart failure within 6 years of the index event.
- At age 40, the lifetime risk of developing heart failure for both men and women is 1 in 5.
- At age 40, the lifetime risk of heart failure occurring without antecedent myocardial infarction is 1 in 9 for men and 1 in 6 for women.
- The lifetime risk doubles for people with blood pressure >160/90 mm Hg compared to those with blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg.
- A study conducted in Olmsted County, Minnesota, showed that the incidence of heart failure (ICD9/428) has not declined during two decades, but survival after onset has increased overall, with less improvement among women and elderly persons. 
Heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization in people older than 65. In developed countries, the mean age of patients with heart failure is 75 years old. In developing countries, two to three percent of the population suffers from heart failure, but in those 70 to 80 years old, it occurs in 20—30 percent.
Men have a higher incidence of heart failure, but the overall prevalence rate is similar in both sexes, since women survive longer after the onset of heart failure. Women tend to be older when diagnosed with heart failure (after menopause), they are more likely than men to have diastolic dysfunction, and seem to experience a lower overall quality of life than men after diagnosis.
New information suggests that elements of heart failure in African Americans and Caucasians may be different and therapy for heart failure has different efficacies depending on racial, ethnic, and genetic backgrounds.
Country Specific Causes
In tropical countries, the most common cause of HF is valvular heart disease or some type of cardiomyopathy. Moreover as underdeveloped countries become more affluent, there has also been an increase in diabetes, hypertension and obesity which has resulted in heart failure.
In USA, HF is much higher in African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and recent immigrants from the eastern bloc countries like Russia. This high prevalence in these ethnic populations has been linked to high incidence of diabetes and hypertension. In many new immigrants to the USA the high prevalence of heart failure has largely been attributed to lack of preventive health care or substandard treatment.
Mostly as a result of the costs of hospitalization, heart failure is associated with high costs which have been estimated to amount to 2% of the total budget of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom, and more than $35 billion in the United States.
- ↑ Disease and Stroke Statistics - 2008 Update, American Heart Association. Accessed on 09 March 2008
- ↑ Lloyd-Jones DM, Larson MG, Leip EP, Beiser A, D'Agostino RB, Kannel WB, Murabito JM, Vasan RS, Benjamin EJ, Levy D; Lifetime Risk for Developing Congestive Heart Failure. Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2002; 106: 3068–72 PMID 12473553
- ↑ Véronique L. Roger, Susan A. Weston, Margaret M. Redfield, Jens P. Hellermann-Homan, Jill Killian, Barbara P. Yawn, Steven J. Jacobsen Trends in Heart Failure Incidence and Survival in a Community-Based Population JAMA. 2004; 292: 344-50 PMID 15265849
- ↑ Thomas S, Rich MW (2007) Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and prognosis of heart failure in the elderly. Heart Fail Clin 3 (4):381-7. DOI:10.1016/j.hfc.2007.07.004 PMID: 17905375
- ↑ Krumholz HM, Chen YT, Wang Y, Vaccarino V, Radford MJ, Horwitz RI (2000). "Predictors of readmission among elderly survivors of admission with heart failure". Am. Heart J. 139 (1 Pt 1): 72–7. doi:10.1016/S0002-8703(00)90311-9. PMID 10618565.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Strömberg A, Mårtensson J. (Apr 2003). "Gender differences in patients with heart failure". Eur. J. Cardiovasc. Nurs. 2 (1): 7–18. doi:10.1016/S1474-5151(03)00002-1. PMID 14622644.
- ↑ Aronow, WS; Ahn C, Kronzon, I (1999). "Comparison of incidence of congestive heart failure in older African-Americans, Hispanics, and Caucasians". Am J of Cardiol 84 (5): 611–2. doi:10.1016/S0002-9149(99)00392-6. PMID 10482169.
- ↑ Heart Failure Information, Retrieved on 2010-01-21.
- ↑ Stewart S, Jenkins A, Buchan S, McGuire A, Capewell S, McMurray JJ (June 2002). "The current cost of heart failure to the National Health Service in the UK". Eur. J. Heart Fail. 4 (3): 361–71. doi:10.1016/S1388-9842(01)00198-2. PMID 12034163.
- ↑ Rosamond W, Flegal K, Furie K, et al. (January 2008). "Heart disease and stroke statistics--2008 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee". Circulation 117 (4): e25–146. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.187998. PMID 18086926.
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