Anhedonia diagnostic criteria

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Pratik Bahekar, MBBS [2]

Overview

As an emotion is accompanied by various physiological responses, body language, goal directed behavior, appraisal etc. Calibration of anhedonia can be done by various ways, e.g. behavioral , electrophysiological, hemodynamic, interview-based measures, and self-reports.

Diagnostic Criteria

Assessment rather than diagnosis is made for anhedonia as it is not a psychiatric disorder in itself. Following are a few frequently used self-questionnaires,

There are several self-report psychometric measures of schizotypy which each contain subscales related to social anhedonia:

  • Revised Social Anhedonia Scale—Chapman Psychosis Proneness Scales: It has 40 true or false questions, this scale aims to evaluate inability to experience pleasure from other people, talking etc non physical stimuli. Higher the score, more is the social anhedonia.
  • Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (R-PAS): It has 61 questions, this scale aims to evaluate inability to experience pleasure from physical stimuli like food, and sex. Higher the score, more is the physical anhedonia.[1][2][3]
  • Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ): Used to screen for schizotypal personality disorder in the general population. Higher scores equate to severity of schizotypal personality symptoms.[4][5]
  • Introverted Anhedonia Subscale—Oxford Liverpool Inventory of Feelings & Experiences [6]
  • Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS): It has 20 items, covering consummatory contextual, consummatory abstract, anticipatory contextual, and anticipatory abstract. this scale aims to evaluate individual trait dispositions in anticipatory and consummatory pleasure experiences. Higher the score, more is the hedonic capability.
  • Monetary incentive delay (MID) task
  • Revised affective incentive delay (AID) task[7]

Patients with higher scores on self-report measures of anhedonia tends to have lower hedonic responses to,

  • Emotive pictures
  • Positive emotional scripts, and sucrose solution
  • Emotion-eliciting slides w.r.t. facial expression and heart rate.[8][9][10]

Following instruments calibrate hedonic capacity. However the psychometric properties are different.

  • Chapman Physical Anhedonia Scale the (PAS):
  • Revised Chapman Social Anhedonia Scale (CSAS)
  • Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale (FCPS)
  • Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHPS or SH APS)

References

  1. "A study of trait anhedonia in non-clinical Chinese ... [PLoS One. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI".
  2. Eckblad, M.L., Chapman, L.J., Chapman, J.P., & Mishlove, M. (1982). The Revised Social Anhedonia Scale. Unpublished test.
  3. Chapman, L.J., Chapman, J.P., & Raulin, M.L. (1976). Scales for physical and social anhedonia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 374-382.
  4. "The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS): e... [PLoS One. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI".
  5. "The SPQ: A Scale for the Assessment of Schizotypal Personality Based on DSM-III-R Criteria".
  6. Mason, O., Claridge, G., & Jackson, M. (l995). New scales for the assessment of schizotypy. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 7-13.
  7. "Domain-specific hedonic deficits towards social affective but not monetary incentives in social anhedonia : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group".
  8. "Neurobiological mechanisms of anhedonia".
  9. "A scale for the assessment of hedonic tone the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale".
  10. "Psychometric evaluation of the Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder".



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