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Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Gray's Anatomy.

Anatomy (from the Greek ἀνατομία anatomia, from ἀνατέμνειν ana: separate, apart from, and temnein, to cut up, cut open) is a branch of biology that is the consideration of the structure of living things. It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytotomy). In some of its facets anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology,[1] through common roots in evolution.

Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy (or macroscopic anatomy) and microscopic anatomy.[1] Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision.[1] Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, which includes histology (the study of the organisation of tissues),[1] and cytology (the study of cells).

The history of anatomy has been characterized, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Methods have also advanced dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century.

Anatomy should not be confused with anatomical pathology (also called morbid anatomy or histopathology), which is the study of the gross and microscopic appearances of diseased organs.

Superficial anatomy

Superficial anatomy or surface anatomy is important in anatomy being the study of anatomical landmarks that can be readily seen from the contours or the surface of the body.[1] With knowledge of superficial anatomy, physicians or veterinary surgeons gauge the position and anatomy of the associated deeper structures.

Human anatomy

An X-ray of a human chest.

Human anatomy, including gross human anatomy and histology, is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body.[1]

Generally, students of certain biological sciences, paramedics, physiotherapists, nurses and medical students learn gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy from anatomical models, skeletons, textbooks, diagrams, photographs, lectures and tutorials. The study of microscopic anatomy (or histology) can be aided by practical experience examining histological preparations (or slides) under a microscope; and in addition, medical students generally also learn gross anatomy with practical experience of dissection and inspection of cadavers (dead human bodies).

Human anatomy, physiology and biochemistry are complementary basic medical sciences, which are generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school. Human anatomy can be taught regionally or systemically;[1] that is, respectively, studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest, or studying by specific systems, such as the nervous or respiratory systems. The major anatomy textbook, Gray's Anatomy, has recently been reorganized from a systems format to a regional format,[2][3] in line with modern teaching methods. A thorough working knowledge of anatomy is required by all medical doctors, especially surgeons, and doctors working in some diagnostic specialities, such as histopathology and radiology.

Academic human anatomists are usually employed by universities, medical schools or teaching hospitals. They are often involved in teaching anatomy, and research into certain systems, organs, tissues or cells.

Other branches

Comparative anatomy relates to the comparison of anatomical structures (both gross and microscopic) in different animals.[1]

Anthropological anatomy or physical anthropology relates to the comparison of the anatomy of different races of humans.

Artistic anatomy relates to anatomic studies for artistic reasons.

See also

General anatomy:

Human anatomy:


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 "Introduction page, "Anatomy of the Human Body". Henry Gray. 20th edition. 1918". 
  2. "Publisher's page for Gray's Anatomy. 39th edition (UK). 2004. ISBN 0-443-07168-3". 
  3. "Publisher's page for Gray's Anatomy. 39th edition (US). 2004. ISBN 0-443-07168-3". 

External links

 This box: view  talk  edit Anatomy
Major Systems
Circulatory system . Digestive system . Endocrine system . Excretory system . Immune system . Integumentary system . Lymphatic system . Muscular system . Nervous system . Reproductive system . Respiratory system . Skeletal system
. Adrenal Gland . Anus . Appendix . Brain . Breast . Colon or large intestine . Diaphragm . Ear . Eye . Heart . Kidney . Larynx . Liver . Lung . Nose . Ovary . Pharynx . Pancreas . Penis . Placenta . Prostate Gland . Rectum . Skin . Small intestine . Seminal Vesicles . Spleen . Stomach . Testis . Thyroid Gland . Tongue . Uterus . Vulva
. Collar bone (clavicle) . Thigh bone (femur) . Humerus . Mandible . Patella . Radius . Skull (cranium) . Tibia . Ulna . Rib (costa) . Vertebrae . Pelvis . Sternum
Ductless gland . Mammary gland . Salivary gland . Thyroid gland . Parathyroid gland . Adrenal gland . Pituitary gland . Pineal gland
Connective tissue . Endothelial tissue . Epithelial tissue . Glandular tissue . Lymphoid tissue
Body Parts
. Abdomen . Arm . Back . Buttock . Chest . Ear . Eye . Face . Genitals . Head . Joint . Leg . Mouth . Neck . Scalp . Skin . Teeth . Tongue
Other Terms
Artery . Coelom . Diaphragm . Gastrointestinal tract . Hair . Exoskeleton . Lip . Nerve . Peritoneum . Serous membrane . Skeleton . Skull . Spinal cord . Vein

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