Adenoiditis classification

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Adenoiditis Microchapters

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Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Adenoiditis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

X Ray

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Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

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Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mahshid Mir, M.D. [2]

Overview

Adenoiditis may be classified according to duration of symptoms into 3 subtypes: acute adenoiditis, recurrent acute adenoiditis, and chronic/persistant adenoiditis.[1] Adenoiditis may also be classified according to the responsible pathogen/mechanism of disease into 4 subtypes: viral adenoiditis, bacterial adenoiditis, parasitic adenoiditis, and non-infectious adenoiditis.

Classification

Adenoiditis may be classified according to duration of symptoms into 3 subtypes: acute adenoiditis, recurrent acute adenoiditis, and chronic/persistant adenoiditis.[1] Adenoiditis may also be classified according to the responsible pathogen/mechanism of disease into 4 subtypes: viral adenoiditis, bacterial adenoiditis, parasitic adenoiditis, and non-infectious adenoiditis.

Adenoiditis classification based on durtion of symptoms
Subtypes Duration of symptoms
Acute adenoiditis Acute onset of symptoms[2]
Recurrent acute adenoiditis At least 4 or more episodes of acute adenoiditis within a 6 months period[3]
Chronic/persistent adenoiditis Persistent adenoiditis for more than 6 months

Presence of complications

Adenoiditis classification based on the responsible pathogen and coexisting conditions
Pathogen Clinical features

(other than adenoiditis)

Treatment
Viral adenoiditis[4][5][6] Epstein-barr virus (EBV)
  • Asymptomatic
    • In small children, the course of the disease is frequently asymptomatic. Majority of adults infected with mono also remain asymptomatic with serological evidence of past infection.
  • Treating symptoms and complications of the infection
Human adenovirus
  • Treating symptoms and complications of the infection
Enterovirus
  • Treating symptoms and complications of the infection
Rhinovirus
Respiratory syncytial virus
  • Treating symptoms and complications of the infection
  • Ribavirin
Cytomegalovirus
Herpes virus
  • Acyclovir
  • Valacyclovir
  • Famcyclovir
Bacterial adenoiditis Acute [7][8][9][10] Haemophilus influenzae
  • Beta lactamase inhibitor antibiotics
Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus
Staphylococcus aureus
Moraxella catarrhalis
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Recurrent[4][9] Usually due to normal flora pathogens:
Chronic [11][9]
Parasitic adenoiditis Toxoplasma gondii
  • Cervical lymphadenopathy, sore throat, muscle aches and pains that last for a month or more, fever, malaise, night sweats
Non-infectious adenoiditis[4][11][5] Allergies
Asthma
GERD

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Head & Neck Surgery--otolaryngology - Google Books".
  2. Havas T, Lowinger D (2002). "Obstructive adenoid tissue: an indication for powered-shaver adenoidectomy". Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 128 (7): 789–91. PMID 12117336.
  3. Mohseni S, Shojaiefard A, Khorgami Z, Alinejad S, Ghorbani A, Ghafouri A (2014). "Peripheral lymphadenopathy: approach and diagnostic tools". Iran J Med Sci. 39 (2 Suppl): 158–70. PMC 3993046. PMID 24753638.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Sadeghi-Shabestari M, Jabbari Moghaddam Y, Ghaharri H (2011). "Is there any correlation between allergy and adenotonsillar tissue hypertrophy?". Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 75 (4): 589–91. doi:10.1016/j.ijporl.2011.01.026. PMID 21377220.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Proenca-Modena JL, Pereira Valera FC, Jacob MG, Buzatto GP, Saturno TH, Lopes L; et al. (2012). "High rates of detection of respiratory viruses in tonsillar tissues from children with chronic adenotonsillar disease". PLoS One. 7 (8): e42136. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042136. PMC 3411673. PMID 22870291.
  6. Endo LH, Ferreira D, Montenegro MC, Pinto GA, Altemani A, Bortoleto AE, Vassallo J (2001). "Detection of Epstein-Barr virus in tonsillar tissue of children and the relationship with recurrent tonsillitis". Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 58 (1): 9–15. PMID 11249975.
  7. Lilja M, Räisänen S, Stenfors LE (1998). "Initial events in the pathogenesis of acute tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes". Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 45 (1): 15–20. PMID 9804015.
  8. Wessels MR, Bronze MS (1994). "Critical role of the group A streptococcal capsule in pharyngeal colonization and infection in mice". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91 (25): 12238–42. PMC 45412. PMID 7991612.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Cunningham, M. W. (2000). "Pathogenesis of Group A Streptococcal Infections". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 13 (3): 470–511. doi:10.1128/CMR.13.3.470-511.2000. ISSN 0893-8512.
  10. Ellen RP, Gibbons RJ (1972). "M protein-associated adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to epithelial surfaces: prerequisite for virulence". Infect. Immun. 5 (5): 826–30. PMC 422446. PMID 4564883.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Akcay A, Tamay Z, Dağdeviren E, Guler N, Ones U, Kara CO; et al. (2006). "Childhood asthma and its relationship with tonsillar tissue". Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 24 (2–3): 129–34. PMID 17136878.

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