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|Data 2:|| April 1, 1908|
Brooklyn, New York
|Data 3 (data hidden if data3 empty or not defined):|| June 8, 1970|
Abraham (Harold) Maslow (April 1 1908 – June 8 1970) was an American psychologist. He is mostly noted today for his proposal of a hierarchy of human needs and is considered the father of humanistic psychology.
Born in Brooklyn, New York, Maslow was the first of seven children of Jewish immigrants from Russia. As his parents were uneducated, they pushed him hard to succeed academically. At first, Abraham acceded to their wishes and enrolled in the City College of New York. However, after three semesters he transferred to Cornell, then back to CCNY. After he married his first cousin, Bertha Maslow, he moved to Wisconsin to attend the University of Wisconsin-Madison where he received his B.A. (1930), his M.A. (1932), and his Ph.D. (1934) in psychology. While in Wisconsin, Maslow met and studied with Harry Harlow, who was known for his controversial experiments on rhesus monkeys and attachment behavior. A year after graduation, Maslow returned to New York to work with E. L. Thorndike at Columbia University|Columbia.
Maslow began teaching full time at Brooklyn College. During this time he met many leading European psychologists, including Alfred Adler and Erich Fromm. In 1951, Maslow became the chairman of the psychology department at Brandeis University, where he began his theoretical work. There, he met Kurt Goldstein, who introduced him to the idea of self-actualization. Later, Maslow developed self-actualization into an area for research and application. In fact, Maslow dedicated "Toward a Psychology of Being"(1968) to Kurt Goldstein.
Maslow's primary contribution to psychology is his Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow contended that humans have a number of needs that are instinctoid, that is, innate. These needs are classified as "conative needs," "cognitive needs," and "aesthetic needs." "Neurotic needs" are included in Maslow's theory but do not exist within the hierarchy.
Maslow postulated that needs are arranged in a hierarchy in terms of their potency. Although all needs are instinctive, some are more powerful than others. The lower the need is in the pyramid, the more powerful it is. The higher the need is in the pyramid, the weaker and more distinctly human it is. The lower, or basic, needs on the pyramid are similar to those possessed by non-human animals, but only humans possess the higher needs.
The first four layers of the pyramid are what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "D-needs:" the individual does not feel anything if they are met, but feels anxious if they are not met..... Needs beyond the D-needs are "growth needs," "being values," or "B-needs." When fulfilled, they do not go away; rather, they motivate further.
The base of the pyramid is formed by the physiological needs, including the biological requirements for food, water, air, and sleep.
Once the physiological needs are met, an individual can concentrate on the second level, the need for safety and security. Included here are the needs for structure, order, security, and predictability.
The third level is the need for love and belonging. Included here are the needs for friends and companions, a supportive family, identification with a group, and an intimate relationship.
The fourth level is the esteem needs. This group of needs requires both recognition from other people that results in feelings of prestige, acceptance, and status, and self-esteem that results in feelings of adequacy, competence, and confidence. Lack of satisfaction of the esteem needs results in discouragement and feelings of inferiority.
Finally, self-actualization sits at the apex of the original pyramid.
In 1970 Maslow published a revision to his original 1954 pyramid (), adding the cognitive needs (first the need to acquire knowledge, then the need to understand that knowledge) above the need for self-actualization, and the aesthetic needs (the needs to create and/or experience beauty, balance, structure, etc.) at the top of the pyramid. However, not all versions of Maslow's pyramid include the top two levels.
Maslow theorized that unfulfilled cognitive needs can become redirected into neurotic needs. For example, children whose safety needs are not adequately met may grow into adults who compulsively hoard money or possessions (see). Unlike other needs, however, neurotic needs do not promote health or growth if they are satisfied.
Maslow also proposed that people who have reached self-actualization will sometimes experience a state he referred to as "transcendence," in which they become aware of not only their own fullest potential, but the fullest potential of human beings at large. He described this transcendence and its characteristics in an essay in the posthumously published The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. (see flow).
In the essay, he describes this experience as not always being transitory, but that certain individuals might have ready access to it, and spend more time in this state. He makes a point that these individuals experience not only ecstatic joy, but also profound "cosmic-sadness" (Maslow, 1971) at the ability of humans to foil chances of transcendence in their own lives and in the world at large.
Maslow's theory of human needs draws strongly on the pioneering work of Henry Murray (1938). This provides the basis for wide-ranging and extensively validated work relating to achievement, affiliation, power and ambition."We move toward self actualization". This quote brings in Maslow's theory of motivation, tying along with the growth, happiness and satisfaction of every person. He believes to be motivated that it is not driven by reducing tension or avoiding frustration that people look for a positive view.
|76th President of the|| Succeeded by|
George A. Miller
Works by Maslow
- Comprehensive bibliography of Maslow's Works
- A Theory of Human Motivation (1943, originally published in Psychological Review, 50, 370-396. Available online.)
- Motivation and Personality (1st edition: 1954, 2nd edition: 1970)
- Eupsychian Management (1965, republished as Maslow on Management, 1998)
- The Psychology of Science: A Reconnaissance New York: Harper & Row, 1966.
- Toward a Psychology of Being (2nd Edition: 1968) -Excerpts (1955-1957)
- The Farther Reaches of Human Nature (1971)
- Maslow on Self-Actualizing People -excerpts from Maslow on Management (1998)
Further Reading and External Links about Maslow
- Maslow's Personality Theory bad link
- Wahba, M.A. & Bridwell, L. G. (1976). Maslow Reconsidered: A Review of Research on the Need Hierarchy Theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 15, 212-240
- Mook, D.G. (1987). Motivation: The Organization of Action. London: W.W. Norton & Company Ltd (ISBN 0-393-95474-9)
- Nicholson, I. (2001). Giving Up Maleness: Abraham Maslow, Masculinity, and the Boundaries of Psychology. History of Psychology, 2, 79-91
- Situating Maslow in Cold War America, by Cooke B, Mills A and Kelley E in Group and Organization Management, (2005) Vol. 30, No. 2, 129-152
- The Right to be Human by Edward Hoffman
- The Founders of Humanistic Psychology by Roy Jose DeCarvalho
- The Third Force: The Psychology of Abraham Maslow by Frank G. Goble
- New Pathways in Psychology: Maslow and the Post-Freudian Revolution
- Humanistic psychology
- Human Potential Movement
- Organismic theory
- Positive Disintegration
- Henry Murray
- Carl Rogers
- Organizational behavior
- Clayton Alderfer
- Colin Wilson
- Douglas McGregor
- Frederick Herzberg
- Rollo May
- David McClelland
- Victor Vroom
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